Top 10 Coaching Frameworks To Make Your Program Powerful

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Article by Gevorgyan

Content writer

Published 17 Mar 2023
18 min read
Top 10 Coaching Frameworks To Make Your Program Powerful


Whether it’s a team that has better performance to reach a business goal or an individual who wants to improve various aspects of personal & professional life, coaching comes to guide.

If you want to succeed in coaching, you have to know everything about it. In previous articles, we have reviewed styles and types, and now it is time to review the Top 10 Coaching frameworks, basically models.

So, if you are ready, let’s start!

What is a coaching framework?

So what is a coaching framework? A coaching framework is simply a model of coaching that coach uses while working with an individual or a team/group.

These are implemented to guide the conversations and coaching sessions and keep them focused, therefore making them clearer and more purposeful.

Why do you need a coaching framework?

A professional coach must be familiar with various coaching models and choose the one that best works for a specific client or group.

There are various reasons why you would need a coaching framework, and here are some of them:

  • Contributes to the better structure of coaching conversation, therefore sessions
  • Maintains the focus of the session, making it more efficient
  • Reduces time unnecessarily spent on subjects non-related to the session and a goal of an overall program
  • Provides clarity for the coach to build an individual growth/transformation plan for the client
  • Clears everything up, allowing both the coach and the coachee to keep working in a logical & precise manner that will bring results faster

Indeed, there are many other reasons. However, we’ve mentioned the Primary ones of Why you would need a coaching framework.

Woman coach presents some important points

5 key components of a useful coaching framework?

No coaching program or session can be successful if you do not implement into practice the Top 5 key components.

Those components are general components used in every framework/coaching method, so let’s look at them.

Coaching framework keypoints

Key Factor 1 - Coach-Client Relationship

One of the most significant factors for a coaching program’s success is the client-coach relationship.

Coaching, in most cases, is aimed at the personal transformation; the coach is the one who guides the client. Therefore, it is vital that the client trusts the coach. When the trust factor is established and developed well, the coaching program will help the client to get the desired results faster and more effectively.

Trust creates a genuine atmosphere where both coach and the client feel free and safe to share with others to listen to and guide.

How to Improve Coach-Client Relationships

Now, I believe it is time to look at some practical tips on improving coach-client relationships.

  • Share with the coachee about yourself, do not be afraid to share your experiences and your vulnerabilities in the past. However, do it wisely and keep in mind that the focus is the coachee.
  • Show them that you genuinely value them as people and see the best in them behind the fear, selfishness, and mistakes that prevent them from becoming the best version of themselves. Show that you believe in them.
  • Do not just phrase them and pay genuine attention to details of their progress; point them out and acknowledge the progress they made.
  • Give your clients time to think about the answers, and remain silent for a bit while they do.
  • Encourage clients to go and get what they truly desire rather than settling for less. Once again, help them understand that they deserve everything good that they want.

Key Factor 2 - Identification of various obstacles & correct Goal-setting

The clients come to the coach with a desire to transform certain or multiple aspects of life, and any transformation should start inward. Therefore, it is vital to identify both internal and external factors & quandaries that stand in the way of the client. Without identification of those, it would be hard to create a future development and transformation plan.

After the dilemmas are identified, there is a need to find out what goals & expectations the client has from the coaching training. It is also vital to guide them toward the formulation of the correct goals. One of the most popular and effective techniques of goal-setting is called SMART.

SMART stands for specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-specific. Basically, the SMART goal has to have all of these characteristics.

Key Factor 3 - Problem-solving

Another key factor for successful coaching is problem-solving. You need to be able to work with your client and develop their problem-solving abilities closely.

After identifying the obstacles that stand in the client’s way, develop coaching conversations that guide the clients toward finding the solutions. Assist them in the creation of the plan or so-called roadmap.

Key Factor 4 - The process of the shift

Identify specific qualities or aspects your client needs to work on which will contribute to the transformation. As a coach, you should help them fulfill their potential.

Plus, as a third-person, in a sense, you are able to notice the obvious things clients may miss out on, so you have the power to guide them towards the true transformation of themselves and, accordingly, their life.

Key Factor 5 - Measurement of the Outcome & Results

If you want your coaching program to be successful and efficient, then you should be able to measure the progress of clients and push them forward.

First of all, try to understand what your client understands under success and what their goals are to be able to measure their progress.

Puzzle as coaching components

10 Most common coaching frameworks

Now, I believe that it is finally time to review all the primary and most popular coaching frameworks. So, let’s start!

The Grow coaching model

‘Performance, learning, and enjoyment are inextricably intertwined.’

Sir John Whitmore


Grow coaching model steps

The first and most widely used framework is the GROW coaching model. As the name makes it obvious, GROW is about the growth of an individual. The growth starts internally and leads to growth externally.

The model clarifies everything for the coach and the coachee, helping them to develop a successful plan for goal achievement. It is also implementing the concept of “learning through experience” and getting from “aspirations & dreams to action & results.”

GROW stands for - Goal, Reality, Options, and Will.

Step 1 - Goals

So the first step is to get clear on the goals. Through coaching conversations, identify your client’s main goals & desired results. Formulate them by implementing the SMART technique.

Step 2 - Reality

The next step is to understand the client’s current reality and help them understand and accept it. Some questions that may help to identify current reality are:

  • What is going on in our life now? Where are you?
  • What steps have you taken toward your goals?
  • Do you have goals that are in conflict with others?

Maybe the client wants a position that requires their constant presence in the company. Meanwhile, another goal is to have flexible working hours and mostly work from home. Then there is a need to eliminate the conflict, adjust the goal or learn to prioritize.

Step 3 - Options

With step 3, you need to identify obstacles and options the client currently has or can create. There are specific questions the coach can ask to help the client see all the options & bigger picture.

  • What are your options? What else can you do in X situation, in Y case?
  • What are the pros and cons of each option?
  • What is the most beneficial option for you?
  • What are the quandaries that stand in your way?

Step 4 - Will

The final step if you implement this model is - Will. After the obstacles and options are clarified, the roadmap toward goal achievement becomes a lot clearer. Now, it is time to find the willingness to go and get it.

As a coach, you must be supportive and understanding and be able to motivate your clients to move forward.

The most important skill you must have to implement this model successfully is questioning. Generally, asking the right questions is vital for efficient coaching.

The Clear coaching model

Another quite popular coaching framework is called CLEAR. It is widely used by business coaches & executive coaches, and the process is designed for transformation.

Clear coaching model steps

The main stages include - Contract, Listen, Explore, Action & Review.

This method is perfect for constructing well-structured coaching sessions.

Step 1 - Contract

The first step is to understand what you and your coachee expect throughout the session. Basically, the contract is about identifying aspects on which you will work throughout a particular session.

It should be completed within every session.

Step 2 - Listen

Each coaching session’s vital element in any coaching model is the ability to listen to your client. Because only through listening can you see all the details and construct piece by piece the bigger picture so that you will be able to guide clients better.

One Pro tip is to take notes about what the client is saying.

Step 3 - Explore

The exploration stage is as vital as any other part of coaching. You need to explore the client and then help them to explore their current reality, options, and obstacles to be able to come up with solutions that will push them forward.

This stage can be successful if the coach knows what questions to ask. So, work on your questioning skills.

Step 4 - Action

At this stage of coaching, you should ask a specific set of questions to your clients. Though make sure that these are not questions that push clients to take a direction that you think is right. As a coach, you must ensure that the clients come to that on their own.

You can ask questions that will trigger their thinking processes both on conscious and unconscious levels.

Questions such as:

  • How can you start the process?
  • When are you planning to start?

Step 5 - Review

The last step that this model includes is - Review. During the review, you, as a coach, should reflect on every stage completed, particularly the contract. Basically, reflect whether or not the objectives established within the first stage of the session were met or not.

This coaching framework is truly one of the best models leaders & executives can use. Plus, if a business hires you as a team coach, this is one of the best ways to go.

The Stepppa coaching model

The next coaching model that can be quite useful for you to know is - Steppa. This model’s focus is on emotions and how to make use of those. The model was originally developed by Dr. Angus McLeod.

Steppa coaching model steps

If your client faces more emotional quandaries, this is one of the best models to use while working with them.

STEPPPA stands for - Subject, Target Identification, Emotion, Perception, Plan, Pace, Action.

Now, let’s take a more detailed look at each.

Step 1 - Subject

At the beginning of the training program, you should identify the aspects that need to be worked on, improved, or completely transformed.

The subject identification may not be very clear at first and can take quite a lot of time, but it is vital to know what each session is going to be about to construct an individual development plan.

Step 2 - Target Identification

After the subject is clear, it is time to identify the target. Basically, get clear on the client’s desired result to be able to get clear on further actions.

Step 3 - Emotion

The next step is identification, acceptance, and transformation of emotion, as they truly are powerful motivators or destructive elements.

As much as emotion can motivate and push one forward the same way, it can keep a person stuck in the same place.

At this stage, you can ask questions to understand whether or not the client has emotional connections to the goal. If not, create ones so that they are motivated to move forward. Examples of questions include?

  • What will you feel when you achieve your goal?
  • How motivated are you?
  • What feelings & emotions will the process bring/awaken in you?

Step 4 - Perception

In order to succeed, both the coach and the coachee should be well aware of everything so that their perception evolves and they are able to see the bigger picture more clearly.

Step 5 - Plan & Pace

Let’s say you are clear on the emotional front, targets, and everything else; now it is time to make a plan on how and at what pace you are going to move forward.

Step 6 - Action

Like all the previous models, this one also involves action because the action is something that will bring the actual results.

Also, at the end of a coaching session, do not forget to review what was learned and how it can be implemented practically from the client’s perspective.

The Oscar coaching model

OSCAR coaching model is proven to be efficient and working. It simply stands for - Outcome, Situation, Choices, Actions, and Review.

OSCAR coaching model steps

This model is perfect for structuring coaching conversations. At the very beginning, it is vital to identify the Outcome of the session. Then, move on to the next stages.

Throughout the Situation stage of the conversation, you need to understand what is clients’ current situation and where they want to be. So this basically clears things up in terms of showing the current situation and paralleling the desired outcome so that coachee has a better understanding of the gap and a clearer roadmap.

The Choices stage as options is basically all about considering what options coachees currently have to take action toward their goals.

The Action stage is all about motivation; basically, as a coach, you guide them toward identifying goals, situations, and options; now, it is the time to push them to go and get their desired results.

Finally, the Review stage is to summarize the whole session and understand where you went and whether or not it was productive.

happy coach and her team checking the reviews

The AOR coaching model

Another coaching model that we thought is necessary to include in this article and a must-know for a professional coach is AOR. The AOR method is perfect for sales coaching. It stands for Activities, Objectives, and Results.

AOR coaching model steps

It provides an overall understanding of how current activities correlate with objectives and connects to the final outcomes/results.

Let’s take a look at more details look at the stages:

  • Activities - a stage quite vital because those are things that can be controlled by an individual & have a clear impact on the results.
  • Objectives - when working with teams, it is vital to ensure that they have common objectives and are united to achieve that because the activities of an individual should be built around the achievement of a business objective, e.g., make X amount of sales in Y month.
  • The “Results” stage is basically about outcomes & measurement of those.

The FUEL coaching model

The FUEL coaching model is designed to achieve behavioral changes that will achieve the desired results. It is highly conversational and aims for long-term behavioral patterns changes.

FUEL coaching model steps

Let’s take a look at the main elements of the FUEL coaching model:

  • Frame the Conversation - the focus should be on the creation of a safe atmosphere where both the client and the coach feel comfortable. Then during this stage, the purpose of the conversation should be clarified. It is, in a sense, establishing an agreement/contract as in CLEAR coaching.
  • Understand the current Truth - basically understand underlying factors that may not be obvious but impact and drive certain behavioral patterns. Also, challenge certain statements & beliefs.
  • Explore the Desired State - find out what coachee wants, what habits they would like to implement what their desired state is
  • Layout a Successful Plan - after discussing every point, it is vital to come up with a plan that will help to achieve the desired state.

As in any other coaching model, during FUEL coaching, it is vital to provide thorough feedback on performance & progress, as well as motivate & guide the coachee thoroughly.

The WOOP coaching model

The WOOP coaching model is based on powerful motivation techniques implemented on the client to push them forward.

WOOP coaching model steps

WOOP stands for Wish, Outcome, Obstacle, and Plan.

Let’s take a bit more detailed look at each stage.

Throughout the Wish stage of the conversation, the ultimate wish or wishes, more precisely goals & objectives, are established. It is vital to guide the clients toward understanding what they truly desire, eliminating the impact that others may have had on the current desires of the client.

Then, when the client is clear on what they want, and they are indeed sure that it is something that will make them happy, it is time to move on to the next stage, the Outcome. This stage will also help to motivate the client moving forward. Throughout the Outcome stage, various visualization techniques may be implemented so that client better visualizes the final results. It becomes a powerful motivator when they are vibrating in the state where they have what they want.

The next stage is Obstacle, which is, as the name suggests, about identifying obstacles and challenges that stand in the way. This stage requires lots of effort as some obstacles may not be very easy to identify. They might be subconscious blocks that stand in the coachee’s way.

The final stage is the Plan meaning that it is time to come up with an optimal plan full of short & long-term solutions toward the achievement of the goal.

Young man doing jumping

Solution-focused coaching model

As the name suggests, the solution-focused coaching model is an extremely result-orientated coaching process.

Solution-focused coaching model steps

Simply put, according to O'Connell and Palmeris is defined as “an outcome orientated, competence-based approach”.

Its main points are to implement goal-orientated strategies, identify and find solutions to obstacles, and activation of resources, meaning making full use of resources.

The strategies that are being utilized while using this method of coaching are mostly future-focused. It also encourages small steps as they contribute to the overall bigger picture. It, in a sense, skips the part of endless identification of problems and internal blocks, going to the finding optimal solutions that can be implemented right away.

Student-centered coaching model

It is an evidence-based coaching model.

Student-centered coaching model steps

It is one of the sub-categories of Instructor-led coaching. As the name suggests, the main focus group is students, and it aims to increase their efficiency and better performance.

The core practices included throughout are:

  • Utilization of coaching cycles
  • Standard-based goal setting
  • Learning-related goals
  • Planning with the student
  • Co-teaching that should use instructional practices
  • Measurement of the impact on student & progress

Instructional coaching model

Instructional coaching model steps

Instructional coaching is aimed at developing a level of expertise. Firstly as in most coaching frameworks, it is vital to identify the current state & the desired outcome along with the obstacles on the way. The main focus is performance improvement.

Throughout this coaching, rather than asking loads of open-ended questions instructor, as an expert, identifies aspects on which the coachee should be working to improve the performance.


Pros & Cons of coaching models

Now, let’s finally take a look at the Pros & Cons of Coaching models in general. It is indeed good and necessary to know how to implement them. However, it can also be costly.

Coaching models' pros and cons


  • You will be able to have a wider range of clients if you are aware of various coaching methods and know how to implement them to bring results for the client.
  • It will be easier to work with different types of clients as you will know what will work best for them and what model should be adopted for their needs.
  • You will become more experienced and reliable
  • Professional growth is guaranteed


  • What works for one client may not work for another
  • When you are well aware and experienced in implementing one or few models does not mean you can implement all of them as well; it takes time & practice to learn
  • You need to invest resources, including time & money, in yourself to become a good coach who is able to efficiently implement all the models and choose the ones that best suit different types of clients

Although you may face some difficulties at first and need to invest in yourself, keep in mind that the keyword is to INVEST. The skills you learn will be helpful not only as a coach but throughout your lifetime in dealing with all kinds of people. Plus, the industry has high demand, so there is a need for some quality supply.

Measure the success of coaching frameworks

There is no certain formula to measure the success of your coaching frameworks besides doing it individually. You should identify metrics by which the progress will be measured and see what goals the client has achieved and keeps achieving.

So keep in mind the top 5 main components of successful coaching and identify all the vital areas and aspects that can clarify measurement processes.

Also, remember that what framework may work best for one client may not work for another. So as a professional coach, you should be aware and able to implement multiple of them, to have effective sessions and outcomes with all types of clients.

Coach checks the results of his program

Use your model in online coaching

Online Coaching is quite scalable nowadays, as more and more people prefer online learning over offline, especially after the pandemic. First of all, it is a lot safer. Secondly, it saves time, money, and other essential resources.

You will also need low starting capital as an online coach, so why not start it now?

Choose Uteach as your online coaching program and create a full-featured business website in a matter of minutes. You will be able to sell physical & digital products, webinars, courses, and live coaching sessions.

Get access to international audiences and become a coach that transforms people’s lives, making them better!

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